Keywords: Mitochondrial diseases, Mitochondrial replacement therapy, three parent baby, genetic engineering


In this review, conducted according to world literature, we sought to determine the role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the formation of mitochondrial diseases. To determine the availability of treatment methods for hereditary diseases, in particular those associated with mitochondrial diseases, and to assess the role of mitochondrial replacement therapy (MRT) in assisted reproductive technologies.

The scientific articles corresponding to the chosen goal are published on MEDLINE, EMBASE, in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and other information sources.

The search strategy combined the following search terms “mitochondrial diseases,” “mitochondrial replacement therapy,” “three-parent baby,” “ART,” “genetic engineering”.


Nass M., Mass S. Intramitochondrial fibers with DNA characteristics. I. fixation and electron staining reactions // J. Cell. Biol. — 1963. — N 19. — R.593-611.

Schatz G., Klima J. Triphosphopyridine nucleotide: cytochrome C reductase of Saccharomyces Cerevisiaea ‘microsomal enzyme // Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. — 1964. — V. 81, N 3. — R.448–461.

Anderson S. Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome // Nature. — 1981. — V. 290, N 5806. — R.457- 465.

Andrews R. Reanalysis and revision of the Cambridge reference sequence for human mitochondrial DNA // Nat. Genet. — 1999. — Vol. 23, N 2. — R. 147.

Wolf D., Mitalipov N., Mitalipov S. Mitochondrial replacement therapy in reproductive medicine // Trends Mol. Med. – 2015 – V. 21 (2) – P.68–76. DOI: 10.1016/j.molmed.2014.12.001.

Metodicheskoe posobie «Mitohondrialnyie zabolevaniya». Vserossiyskoe obschestvo orfannyih zabolevaniy.

Voropaeva E., Maksimov B., Malyutina C. Obzor svoystv i metodov issledovaniya mitohondrialnoy DNK. – 2016 g. 14.00.00 meditsinskie nauki (14.03.00 Mediko-biologicheskie nauki) UDK 577.21-07.

Hui-Shan Liu, Pei-Lun Chu. Three-parent embryo: The therapeutic future for inherited mitochondrial diseases // Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. — 2014. — N.114. — S. 1027-1028. org/F10.1016/j.jfma.2014.04.007

Torjesen I. UK moves a step closer to being first country in world to allow “three parent babies” // BMJ. – 2013g.

Chicherin I., Levitskiy S., Krashennikov I. i dr. Perspektivyi gennoy terapii mitohondrialnyih bolezney: BEZ CRISPR/CAS9 ne oboytis? // Vestnik RGMU – 2017 - #3 – S.46-51.

Gao Y., Wu H., Wang Y. et al. Single Cas9 nickase induced generation of NRAMP1 knockin cattle with reduced off-target effects // Genome Biol. – 2017 – V.18 (1). – P.13.

Ger P.A. Bongaerts. How to prevent ‘half-bastard’ progeny? Or an alternative for three-parent babies: Two-parent babies through transplantation of sperm mitochondria // Medical Hypotheses. — 2006. — N67. — P.1266-1269. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.mehy.2006.04.053

Trisha Gura. Fertile mind // Nature. — 2012. — N491. — P.319–320.Article

Patrushev M., Kamenski P., Mazunin I. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA and approaches for their correction // Biochemistry – 2014. – V. 79. – P.1151-1160. .

Bandiera S., Rüberg S., Girard M. et al. Nuclear outsourcing of RNA interference components to human mitochondria // PloS one–2011–V.6(6).–P.e20746.

Sharipov R.R., Efremov V.V. Sovremennyie metodyi vspomogatelnoy reproduktsii. Troynoe roditelstvo // Molodoy uchenyiy – 2016. – #26.2 (130.2). – S.47-50.

Gorman G., Chinnery P., Di Mauro S. et al. Mitochondrial diseases // Nat. Rev. Dis. Primers. – 2016. – V.2. – P.16080.

Masahito Tachibana, Michelle Sparman, Hathaitip Sritanaudomchai et al. Mitochondrial gene replacement in primate offspring and embryonic stem cells // Nature. — 2009. — N461. — P.367 -370. DOI: 10.1038/nature08368

Ger P.A. Bongaerts. How to prevent ‘half-bastard’ progeny? Or an alternative for three-parent babies: Two-parent babies through transplantation of sperm mitochondria // Medical Hypotheses. — 2006. — N 67. — P.1266–1269. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.mehy.2006.04.053

David Cyranoski DNA-swap technology almost ready for fertility clinic // URL: news/dna-swap-technology-almost-ready-for-fertility-clinic-1.11651 doi:10.1038/nature.2012.11651

Ewen Callaway. The power of three // Nature. — 2014. — N.509. — P.414–417. doi:10.1038/509414a

Erika Check Hayden. Regulators weigh benefits of ‘three-parent’ fertilization // Nature. — 2013. — N502. — P.284-285.

Reports of ‘three-parent babies’ multiply // URL: babies-multiply-1.20849 doi:10.1038/nature.2016.20849

Three-parent baby claim raises hopes — and ethical concerns // URL: parent-baby-claim-raises-hopes-and-ethical-concerns-1.20698 doi:10.1038/nature.2016.20698

John Zhang, Hui Liu.Shiyu Luo, Dagan Wells et al. Live birth derived from oocyte spindle transfer to prevent mitochondrial disease. DOI:

Mykytenko D., Mazur P., Dyachenko L. et al. Efficacy of nuclear transfer to prevent the inherited mitochondrial pathology. DOI:

Pavlo Mazur, Dmytro Mykytenko, Kate Lavrova, Valery Zukin. Reverse reconstitution of human zygotes reveals the competence of zygotic cytoplasts in women of advanced maternal age. DOI:

Paula Amato, Masahito Tachibana, Michelle Sparman, Shoukhrat Mitalipov. Three-parent in vitro fertilization: gene replacement for the prevention of inherited mitochondrial diseases // Fertility Sterility. – 2014. – V.101(1). – P.31–35. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2013.11.030.

Rulli T. The Mitochondrial Replacement ‘Therapy’ // Myth. Bioethics. – 2017. – V.31(5). – P.368-374. DOI: 10.1111/ bioe.12332.

Burrell C. Mitochondrial replacement therapy and ‘three-parent children’ – who should be registered as the legal parents? // BJOG. – 2017. – V.124 (7). – P.1056. DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.14638.

How to Cite
Chalova, L., & Lokshin, V. (2020). MITOCHONDRIAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY: FUTURE OR PRESENT?. Reproductive Medicine, (2(43), 7-12.